زندگینامه لئو تولستوی

زندگینامه لئو تولستوی

زندگینامه لئو تولستوی و استفاده از آن در یادگیری زبان انگلیسی | کلاس خصوصی زبان انگلیسی

Russian author Leo Tolstoy wrote the acclaimed novels War and Peace, Anna Karenina and The Death of Ivan Ilyich, and still ranks among the world’s top writers.

کلاس خصوصی زبان انگلیسی , آموزش زبان انگلیسی , زندگینامه لئو تولستوی

Synopsis

On September 9, 1828, Leo Tolstoy was born in Tula Province, Russia. In the 1860s, he wrote his first great novel, War and Peace. In 1873, Tolstoy set to work on the second of his best known novels, Anna Karenina. He continued to write fiction throughout the 1880s and 1890s. One of his most successful later works was The Death of Ivan Ilyich. Tolstoy died on November 20, 1910 in Astapovo, Russia.

زندگینامه لئو تولستوی

Early Life

On September 9, 1828, writer Leo Tolstoy was born at his family’s estate, Yasnaya Polyana, in the Tula Province of Russia. He was the youngest of four boys. In 1830, when Tolstoy’s mother, née Princess Volkonskaya, died, his father’s cousin took over caring for the children. When their father, Count Nikolay Tolstoy, died just seven years later, their aunt was appointed their legal guardian. When the aunt passed away, Tolstoy and his siblings moved in with a second aunt, in Kazan, Russia. Although Tolstoy experienced a lot of loss at an early age, he would later idealize his childhood memories in his writing.

Tolstoy received his primary education at home, at the hands of French and German tutors. In 1843, he enrolled in an Oriental languages program at the University of Kazan. There, Tolstoy failed to excel as a student. His low grades forced him to transfer to an easier law program. Prone to partying in excess, Tolstoy ultimately left the University of Kazan in 1847, without a degree. He returned to his parents’ estate, where he made a go at becoming a farmer. He attempted to lead the serfs, or farmhands, in their work, but he was too often absent on social visits to Tula and Moscow. His stab at becoming the perfect farmer soon proved to be a failure. He did, however, succeed in pouring his energies into keeping a journal—the beginning of a lifelong habit that would inspire much of his fiction.

As Tolstoy was flailing on the farm, his older brother, Nikolay, came to visit while on military leave. Nikolay convinced Tolstoy to join the Army as a junker, south in the Caucasus Mountains, where Nikolay himself was stationed. Following his stint as a junker, Tolstoy transferred to Sevastopol in Ukraine in November 1854, where he fought in the Crimean War through August 1855.

کلاس خصوصی زبان انگلیسی , آموزش زبان انگلیسی , زندگینامه لئو تولستوی

زندگینامه لئو تولستوی

Death and Legacy

Unfortunately, the pilgrimage proved too arduous for the aging novelist. In November 1910, the stationmaster of a train depot in Astapovo, Russia opened his home to Tolstoy, allowing the ailing writer to rest. Tolstoy died there shortly after, on November 20, 1910. He was buried at the family estate, Yasnaya Polyana, in Tula Province, where Tolstoy had lost so many loved ones yet had managed to build such fond and lasting memories of his childhood. Tolstoy was survived by his wife and their brood of 8 children. (The couple had spawned 13 children in all, but only 10 had survived past infancy.)

To this day, Tolstoy’s novels are considered among the finest achievements of literary work. War and Peace is, in fact, frequently cited as the greatest novel ever written. In contemporary academia, Tolstoy is still widely acknowledged as having possessed a gift for describing characters’ unconscious motives. He is also championed for his finesse in underscoring the role of people’s everyday actions in defining their character and purpose.

کلاس خصوصی زبان انگلیسی , آموزش زبان انگلیسی , زندگینامه لئو تولستوی

لِف نیکلایویچ تولستوی  (به روسی: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й) فعال سیاسی-اجتماعی و نویسنده روسی بود.

وی متولد ۹ سپتامبر ۱۸۲۸ در یاسنایا پالیانا است.

تولستوی از نویسندگان نامی تاریخ معاصر روسیه به شمار می‌آید.

رمانهای جنگ و صلح و آنا کارنینا تولستوی از بهترین‌های ادبیات داستانی جهان هستند.

تولستوی در روسیه بسیار محبوب است و سکه طلای یادبود به احترام وی ضرب شده است.

تولستوی در زمان زنده بودنش شهرت و محبوبیتی جهانی داشت اما به سادگی زندگی می‌کرد.

نام تولستوی در زبان انگلیسی معمولاً بصورت «لئو تولستوی» نوشته می‌شود.

تولستوی در روز ۲۰ نوامبر ۱۹۱۰ درگذشت و در زادگاه خویش به خاک سپرده شد.

زندگینامه لئو تولستوی

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