زندگینامه هرمان ملویل

زندگینامه هرمان ملویل

زندگینامه هرمان ملویل و استفاده از آن در یادگیری زبان انگلیسی

Celebrated American author Herman Melville wrote ‘Moby-Dick’ and several other sea-adventure novels, before turning to poetry later in his literary career.

زندگینامه هرمان ملویل

زندگینامه هرمان ملویل به زبان انگلیسی

Synopsis

Herman Melville was born in New York City in 1819. He worked as a crew member on several vessels beginning in 1839, his experiences spawning his successful early novels Typee (1846) and Omoo (1847). Subsequent books, including his masterpiece Moby-Dick (1851), sold poorly, and by the 1860s Melville had turned to poetry. Following his death in New York City in 1891, he posthumously came to be regarded as one of the great American writers.

زندگینامه هرمان ملویل و استفاده از آن در یادگیری زبان انگلیسی

‘Moby-Dick’ and Other Works

Melville continued with the sea-adventure theme for Mardi: and a Voyage Thither (1849), Redburn: His First Voyage (1849) and White-Jacket; or, The World in a Man-of-War (1850).

The author in 1851 delivered what would become his signature work, Moby-Dick (initially titled The Whale). Moby-Dick, categorized as American Romanticism, is based on both Melville’s years of experience aboard whaleships and the real-life disaster of the Essex whaleship.

Traveling from Nantucket, Massachusetts, to South America, the Essex met its doom in the Pacific Ocean in November 1820, when a sperm whale attacked and destroyed the ship. The crew, adrift in their small whaleboats, faced storms, thirst, illness and starvation, and were even reduced to cannibalism for survival. However, succeeding in one of the great open-boat journeys of all time, the few survivors were picked up off South America. Their story, spread widely in America in the 19th century, provided inspiration for Melville’s tale of a ship captain seeking revenge on an elusive whale.

While Moby-Dick eventually achieved immense critical acclaim, Melville didn’t live to witness that success. In fact, the book didn’t bring him any wealth or respect during his lifetime. Early critics were unimpressed by the novel; an 1851 article in the Illustrated London News called it “Herman Melville’s last and best and most wildly imaginative story,” and a testament to his “reckless imaginative power.” The article went on to note Melville’s “great aptitude for quaint and original philosophical speculation, degenerating, however, too often into rhapsody and purposeless extravagance.”

Moby-Dick sold poorly, as did subsequent novels like Pierre; or, The Ambiguities (1852) and Israel Potter: His Fifty Years of Exile (1855). Following the release of The Confidence-Man: His Masquerade in 1857, Melville all but gave up on writing novels.

زندگینامه هرمان ملویل شاعر و نویسنده بزرگ آمریکایی

Later Years, Death and Legacy

Melville delivered a series of lectures throughout the late 1850s, and the following decade he began a 20-year career as a customs inspector in New York City. He also turned his creative interests to poetry during this period, publishing a collection called Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War in 1866. In 1876, he published the epic Clarel: A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land, based on a previous trip to the region.

Melville had finally begun work on another novel when he died of a heart attack in New York City on September 28, 1891. His early fame had vanished by then, but many of his books were eventually reprinted, and his name began slowly gaining traction in the literary world. By the early 1920s, Melville had become a well-known figure among readers and critics alike; his last novel also saw the light of day, published in 1924 as Billy Budd, Sailor.

Today, Herman Melville is regarded as one of America’s greatest writers, his masterpiece Moby-Dick adapted for the big screen in 1956 and enduring as a staple of school reading lists. Interest in Melville and his works spiked again in 2015 with the release of the Ron Howard-directed In the Heart of the Sea, about the ill-fated voyage of the Essex.

زندگینامه هرمان ملویل به زبان فارسی

هرمان ملویل | Herman Melville رمان‌نویس، شاعر و نویسنده داستان‌های کوتاه آمریکایی است.

آثارش در زمان حیاتش چندان مورد استقبال قرار نگرفتند و حتی رمان‌هایی که دربارهٔ دریا نگاشت از تعداد خوانندگانش کاست.

سال‌ها بعد و در دهه 1920 میلادی، رمان موبی‌دیک او یکی از برترین شاهکارهای ادبیات آمریکا و جهان شناخته شد.

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