زندگینامه هنری دیوید ثورو

زندگینامه هنری دیوید ثورو

زندگینامه هنری دیوید ثورو و استفاده از آن در یادگیری زبان انگلیسی

American essayist, poet, and practical philosopher, Henry David Thoreau was a New England Transcendentalist and author of the book Walden.

زندگینامه هنری دیوید ثورو

Synopsis

Henry David Thoreau was born on July 12, 1817, in Concord, Massachusetts. He began writing nature poetry in the 1840s, with poet Ralph Waldo Emerson as a mentor and friend. In 1845 he began his famous two-year stay on Walden Pond, which he wrote about in his master work, Walden. He also became known for his beliefs in Transcendentalism and civil disobedience, and was a dedicated abolitionist.

زندگینامه هنری دیوید ثورو

Early Life

One of America’s most famous writers, Henry David Thoreau is remembered for his philosophical and naturalist writings. He was born and raised in Concord, Massachusetts, along with his older siblings John and Helen and younger sister Sophia. His father operated a local pencil factory, and his mother rented out parts of the family’s home to boarders.

A bright student, Thoreau eventually went to Harvard College (now Harvard University). There he studied Greek and Latin as well as German. According to some reports, Thoreau had to take a break from his schooling for a time because of illness. He graduated from college in 1837 and struggled with what do to next. At the time, an educated man like Thoreau might pursue a career in law or medicine or in the church. Other college graduates went into education, a path he briefly followed. With his brother John, he set up a school in 1838. The venture collapsed a few years later after John became ill. Thoreau then went to work for his father for a time.

After college, Thoreau befriended writer and fellow Concord resident Ralph Waldo Emerson. Through Emerson, he became exposed to Transcendentalism, a school of thought that emphasized the importance of empirical thinking and of spiritual matters over the physical world. It encouraged scientific inquiry and observation. Thoreau came to know many of the movement’s leading figures, including Bronson Alcott and Margaret Fuller.

Emerson acted as a mentor to Thoreau and supported him in many ways. For a time, Thoreau lived with Emerson as a caretaker for his home. Emerson also used his influence to promote Thoreau’s literary efforts. Some of Thoreau’s first works were published in The Dial, a Transcendentalist magazine. And Emerson gave Thoreau access to the lands that would inspire one of his greatest works.

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زندگینامه هنری دیوید ثورو

Later Years

After leaving Walden Pond, Thoreau spent some time looking after Emerson’s house while he was on tour in England. Still fascinated with nature, Thoreau wrote down his observations on plant and wildlife in his native Concord and on his journeys. He visited the woods of Maine and the shoreline of Cape Cod several times.

Thoreau also remained a devoted abolitionist until the end of his life. To support his cause, he wrote several works, including the 1854 essay “Slavery in Massachusetts.” Thoreau also took a brave stand for Captain John Brown, a radical abolitionist who led an uprising against slavery in Virginia. He and his supporters raided a federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry to arm themselves in October 1859, but their plan was thwarted. An injured Brown was later convicted of treason and put to death for his crime. Thoreau rose to defend him with the speech “A Plea for Capt. John Brown,” calling him “an angel of light” and “the bravest and humanest man in all the country.”

In his later years, Thoreau battled an illness that had plagued him for decades. He had tuberculosis, which he had contracted decades earlier. To restore his health, Thoreau went to Minnesota in 1861, but the trip didn’t improve his condition. He finally succumbed to the disease on May 6, 1862. Thoreau was heralded as “an original thinker” and “a man of simple tastes, hardy habits, and of preternatural powers of observation” in some of his obituaries.

While other writers from his time have faded into obscurity, Thoreau has endured because so much of what he wrote about is still relevant today. His writings on government were revolutionary, with some calling him an early anarchist. Thoreau’s studies of nature were equally radical in their own way, earning him the moniker of “father of environmentalism.” And his major work, Walden, has offered up an interesting antidote to living in the modern rat race.

زندگینامه هنری دیوید ثورو

هنری دیوید ثورو فیلسوف، نویسنده، شاعر، طبیعت‌گرا، اصلاح‌طلب و ریاضت‌کش آمریکایی بود که بیشتر برای نوشتن کتابی با نام والدن شناخته شده‌است.

او نظریه‌پرداز نافرمانی مدنی و یکی از مهم‌ترین چهره‌های نظریه تعالی و عشق به بدویت، سراسر زندگی کوتاهش را در شهر کونکورد در ایالت ماساچوست آمریکا گذراند.

شهرت وی که البته پس از حیات وی اتفاق افتاد به دلیل مقاله نافرمانی مدنی اوست؛ شخصیت‌هایی چون ماهاتما گاندی، مارتین لوتر کینگ و لئون تولستوی تحت تأثیر این مقاله قرار گرفته‌اند.

زندگینامه هنری دیوید ثورو

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