زندگینامه یوهانس گوتنبرگ

زندگینامه یوهانس گوتنبرگ

زندگینامه یوهانس گوتنبرگ و استفاده از آن در یادگیری زبان انگلیسی | کلاس خصوصی زبان انگلیسی

German inventor Johannes Gutenberg developed a method of movable type and used it to create one of the Western world’s first major printed books, the “Forty-Two-Line” Bible.

کلاس خصوصی زبان انگلیسی , آموزش زبان انگلیسی , زندگینامه یوهانس گوتنبرگ

Synopsis
Johannes Gutenberg was born circa 1395, in Mainz, Germany. He started experimenting with printing by 1438. In 1450 Gutenberg obtained backing from the financier, Johann Fust, whose impatience and other factors led to Gutenberg’s loss of his establishment to Fust several years later. Gutenberg’s masterpiece, and the first book ever printed in Europe from movable type, is the “Forty-Two-Line” Bible, completed no later than 1455. Gutenberg died in Mainz in 1468.

Early Life
Born into a modest merchant family in Mainz, Germany, circa 1395, Johannes Gutenberg’s work as an inventor and printer would have a major impact on communication and learning worldwide. He was the third son of Freile zum Gensfleisch and his second wife, Else Wirick zum Gutenberg, whose maiden name Johann later adopted. There is little recorded history of this early life, but local records indicate he apprenticed as a goldsmith while living in Mainz.

Experiments in Printing
When a craftsman revolt erupted in Mainz against the noble class in 1428, Johannes Gutenberg’s family was exiled and settled in what is now Strasbourg, France, where his experiments with printing began. Already familiar with bookmaking, Gutenberg perfected small metal type. Infinitely more practical than carving complete wood blocks for printing, each type was a single letter or character. Movable type had been used in Asia hundreds of years earlier, but Gutenberg’s innovation was developing a casting system and metal alloys which made production easier.

زندگینامه یوهانس گوتنبرگ

کلاس خصوصی آیلتس | کلاس خصوصی تافل

Later Life
In 1462, Mainz was sacked by Archbishop Adolph II in a dispute over control of the city and Fust and Gutenberg’s printing businesses were destroyed. Many of the city’s typographers fled to other parts of Germany and Europe, taking their techniques and technology with them. Gutenberg remained in Mainz, but once again fell into poverty. The Archbishop granted him the title of Hofmann (gentleman of the court) in 1465, which provided a salary and privileges for services rendered. Gutenberg carried on his printing activities for several more years, but little evidence exists of what he actually published because he didn’t put his name on any of his printings.

Records of Johannes Gutenberg’s later years are as sketchy as his early life. Still living in Mainz, it is believed that he went blind in the last months of his life. He died on February 3, 1468, and was buried in the church of the Franciscan convent in the nearby town of Eltville, Germany.

زندگینامه یوهانس گوتنبرگ

یوهانس گوتنبرگ متولد حدود ۱۳۹۸ در ماینتز آلمان و اولین مخترع ماشین چاپ و کلاً صنعت چاپ در اروپا بود.

از یوهان گوتنبرگ اغلب به عنوان مخترع صنعت چاپ یاد می‌شود اما آنچه را که او انجام داد ابداع اولین روش استفاده از حروف چاپی قابل جابجایی و ماشین چاپ بود که این امکان را فراهم می‌آورد تا بتوان مطالب نوشته‌شدهٔ گوناگون را با سرعت و دقت به چاپ رساند.

البته این صنعت ۴۰۰سال قبل از وی توسط یک بازرگان چینی به نام بی شنگ استفاده می‌شد و حدود ۲۰۰ سال قبل نیز در کره مورد استفاده قرار می‌گرفت.

مهم‌ترین اثر گوتنبرگ انجیل گوتنبرگ یا انجیل ۴۲ سطری است، که از لحاظ زیبایی خطی و کیفیت صنعتی آن در زمان خودش انجیلی بی‌نظیر بود.

وی در تاریخ ۳ فوریه ۱۴۶۸ درگذشت.

زندگینامه یوهانس گوتنبرگ

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